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China has recently undertaken important steps to liberalise foreign direct investment (FDI), placing the country among the top FDI reformer countries according to the OECD FDI Regulatory Restrictiveness Index.
Since the beginning of China’s economic transformation in the early 1970s, investment has been a key driver of China’s growth and has contributed to substantial improvements in living standards. Over three decades of average annual GDP growth of 10%, disposable incomes have soared, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty. The share of the population living in extreme poverty has declined from above 90% in the early 1980s to less than 10% today. However, this growth model is no longer sustainable. Returns on investment have declined, although they are still higher than those of the Asian Tigers. Excess capacity is plaguing several sectors, and negative externalities have been onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and income inequality. A key objective of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) is therefore to move the economy towards a path of more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth.
Leaders of the G20 countries meeting at their Summit in Hangzhou, China, have called on the OECD to help develop an agenda to build a stronger, more innovative and inclusive world economy.
The OECD is proud to be working closely with China’s G20 Presidency towards an innovative, invigorated, interconnected and inclusive global economy. We will continue to share our multidisciplinary expertise, knowledge, tools and data to boost growth, increase investment, encourage innovation, lift employment and promote inclusiveness in the lead up to the Leaders’ Summit in Hangzhou.
Since the start of the economic reform process in the 70s China has been able to generate a large volume of investment, both from domestic and foreign sources. This high volume of investment was instrumental in sustaining strong economic growth and related improvements in living standards. However, this growth model is not longer sustainable. Returns on investment have fallen, excessive capacity is plaguing several sectors and the negative externalities have been very onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and rising income inequality. A key objective of the Chinese government is therefore to move the economy towards a more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth path as envisaged by the 13th Five-Year Plan. In this adjustment process, the country is seeking new approaches for smarter, greener and more productive investment. This will require mutually reinforcing reforms to improve investment planning, rebalance the role of government and market forces, mainstream responsible business conduct and encourage greater private investment, especially in green infrastructure. China’s growing role as an outward investor may act as catalyser for the required reforms at home, as Chinese private and state-owned enterprises have to adopt internationally recognised practices and standards .
The State continues to remain an important shareholder in listed companies worldwide, especially among emerging economies, which rely increasingly on mixed-ownership models. With the benefit of hindsight and more recent examples, this book provides fresh perspectives on the motivation to list state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the process it entails. Drawing from the experiences of five economies (People's Republic of China, India, New Zealand, Poland and Turkey), the book concludes that broadened ownership generally has a positive impact on the governance and performance of these companies. However, country practices show that the act of listing cannot guarantee that these companies are completely averse to State interests; and deviations from sound corporate governance practices, as enshrined in the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of SOEs, can in some cases, raise concerns with regards to non-State shareholder rights, commercial orientation, board independence, conflicting State objectives, transparency, disclosure and more.
Beijing, 24 October 2014 - China presented guidelines intended to provide a roadmap for the responsible business conduct of Chinese companies operating overseas. In addition, China and the OECD signed a Memorandum of Understanding to promote the implementation by Chinese companies of responsible business conduct in global mineral supply chains.
China is increasingly interested in further advancing its investment co-operation with the OECD. This is in large part due to the fact that China wants to attract more "quality" foreign direct investment (FDI) from OECD-based companies and the perception that the OECD could provide useful best policy practices and experiences for China.
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This paper examines China’s investment policy since the publication of the 2008 OECD Investment Policy Review of China and recommends that the Chinese government continue its efforts to liberalise and increase the transparency and predictability of the framework for both inward and outward FDI. OECD Working Papers on International Investment - No. 2013/1.
Mr. Gurría presented in Beijing the 2008 OECD Investment Policy Review of China which assesses recent developments in the Chinese investment environment and focuses on the government’s efforts to encourage responsible business conduct in China, as well as by Chinese enterprises operating abroad.