China’s exceptional economic expansion has led to rising energy demand and pollution as well as other environmental pressures. Strong efforts by the government have moderated emissions of some types of air and water pollution from high levels but others, including greenhouse gas emissions, continue to rise. Poor air and water quality threaten human health, create other costs and reduce well-being.
The main features of China’s current sub-national finance arrangements date back to the 1994 tax reform. China has a multi-level government structure that shares national tax revenues through a system of tax sharing and transfers, and divides spending assignments and responsibilities.
This paper explores the productivity impact of trade, product market and financial market policies over the last decade in China – a fast growing country where, despite significant reform action, regulatory stance remains still far from OECD standards.
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Labour disputes have intensified in China in recent years, alongside the labour shortages and wage inflation, particularly since 2008 when several Chinese labour related laws were issued or updated. This paper describes basic situations of labour disputes and examines the determinants of labour disputes from macro and micro perspectives
Exchange rate levels affect trade flows in agriculture and in the manufacturing and mining sector in China, the Euro area and the United States, though they do not explain in their entirety the trade imbalances in these three economies, this paper finds.
Commodity prices surged in 2006-08 in Argentina, Brazil, China, Chile, India, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine and Vietnam. Government policy responses to these price surges were not always successful in minimising the impact on consumers and producers, this report finds.
A report on how growth in demand for agricultural products has evolved in developing and emerging economies, notably Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China (the so-called BRIIC countries).
This paper uses the OECD’s Going for Growth framework, as well as other available evidence linking policies to economic performance, to identify key structural policy challenges in the BIICS for the years ahead.
Despite progress in opening up the financial sector to international investors and in allowing domestic investors to invest abroad, liberalisation has been slow and in most market segments the foreign share remains very small.
In recent years, policymaking in China has put increasing emphasis on stemming the growth in inequality, which had been fairly steep since the 1980s.