Increasing competition between water users to access the resource creates new risks and trade-offs. Farmers, and the environment, will have to compete with cities, energy suppliers, and several industries, to get the water they need.
Carbon pricing mechanisms must be mutually supportive, cost-effective, and sustainable in order to inspire confidence to invest in technologies and infrastructure that shift production and consumption decisions towards low-carbon choices.
"We must toughen our policies to improve the conservation and sustainable use of our natural resources and wildlife,” says OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría.
Climate change poses serious challenges to countries' social and economic development. The OECD provides the analytical foundations needed to develop efficient and effective adaptation policies in developing and developed countries.
This environmental-economic modelling work is aimed to assist governments in identifying least-cost policies or policy mixes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assesses the cost and impacts of possible post-2012 international frameworks, among other applications.