Biodiversity is fundamental to sustaining life, providing critical ecosystem services, such as food security, water purification, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation, that are essential to support human well-being and economic growth.
Increased contributions to climate change, local air pollution, health ailments, congestion and road accidents from the under-taxation of company cars in OECD countries is estimated to cost EUR 116 billion.
“Cities have the potential to make a great difference in the global effort to confront climate change: They account for more than 70 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions and two-thirds of the world’s energy use today,” Mr. Gurría and Mr. Bloomberg stated.
Limiting climate change to 2°C requires a major shift in investment patterns towards low-carbon, climate-resilient options. The challenge for policy makers is to ensure that clear, consistent and coherent signals are being sent to investors, producers and consumers alike.
Increasing competition between water users -farmers, the environment, cities, energy suppliers, and industries- to access the resource creates new risks and trade-offs.