By Date


  • 11-July-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Czech Republic 2018

    The Czech Republic has made progress in decoupling economic growth from freshwater abstractions, energy consumption, GHG and other air pollutants emissions. However, its strong industrial base and reliance on coal place the country among the most energy- and carbon-intensive in the OECD and air pollution is a serious health concern. Progressing towards sustainable development will require strengthening political commitment to a low-carbon economy and implementing more cost-effective environmental policies.
    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of the Czech Republic. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, materials management and circular economy and sustainable urban development.
  • 29-June-2018

    English

    Energy Subsidy Reform Schemes in the Republic of Moldova - Assessing Energy Affordability and Environmental Impacts

    This report looks at the fiscal, environmental and social impacts of energy subsidy reform in Moldova with a particular focus on energy affordability. Reduced value added tax (VAT) rate on natural gas consumption and a VAT exemption on electricity and heat consumption by domestic users represent the largest fossil-fuel consumer subsidies in Moldova. Reforming these will imply an increase of the VAT rate, which will lead to an increase of gas, electricity and heat tariffs for households, and will in turn affect household consumption levels, related expenditures and energy affordability. If reform measures are to work, they will need to be accompanied by a carefully-designed social policy to protect poor households.
  • 28-June-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2018

    Hungary has made significant progress in decoupling its output growth from main environmental pressures, largely due to implementing requirements of EU directives. However, greenhouse gas emissions have started to pick up with the recent rebound of economic activity. Local air quality has not improved significantly, and water quality remains at risk. Important institutional challenges impede more effective implementation of environmental laws and policies. Hungary can accelerate the transition towards a low-carbon and greener economy, particularly by investing in residential energy efficiency and sound waste and material management, and better mainstreaming of biodiversity protection into sectoral economic policies.This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Hungary. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, material management and circular economy, and biodiversity.
  • 26-June-2018

    English

    Managing weather-related disasters in Southeast Asian agriculture

    Southeast Asia’s exposure to increasingly frequent and intense weather-related disasters is a growing concern for agricultural producers of the region. This study reviews policy approaches to droughts, floods and typhoons in Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam in an effort to identify good practices and strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sector. The study assesses the risk exposure of this sector to weather-related disasters and reviews risk management policies using an OECD policy framework on the mitigation of droughts and floods in agriculture as a benchmark.The analysis reveals several priority areas  to strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sectors in these four Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, including: 1) improving the prevention and mitigation components of disaster risk management by aligning policy incentives and by integrating risk-reduction measures into infrastructure planning and extension systems; 2) implementing and enforcing water allocation and water use restriction instruments to steer farmers towards more efficient water use; 3)  enhancing the co-ordination of government and partner institutions' activities to enable a more timely response to disasters; and 4) improving the timely distribution of inputs, equipment and social protection measures like disaster-linked cash transfers to strengthen the capacity of farmers to recover from disasters.
  • 25-June-2018

    English

    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment - Further Developments and Policy Use

    This book explores recent developments in environmental cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This is defined as the application of CBA to projects or policies that have the deliberate aim of environmental improvement or are actions that affect, in some way, the natural environment as an indirect consequence. It builds on the previous OECD book by David Pearce et al. (2006), which took as its starting point that a number of developments in CBA, taken together, altered the way in which many economists would argue CBA should be carried out and that this was particularly so in the context of policies and projects with significant environmental impacts.
    It is a primary objective of the current book not only to assess more recent advances in CBA theory but also to identify how specific developments illustrate key thematic narratives with implications for practical use of environmental CBA in policy formulation and appraisal of investment projects.
    Perhaps the most significant development is the contribution of climate economics in its response to the challenge of appraising policy actions to mitigate (or adapt to) climate change. Work in this area has increased the focus on how to value costs and benefits that occur far into the future, particularly by showing how conventional procedures for establishing the social discount rate become highly problematic in this intergenerational context and what new approaches might be needed. The contribution of climate economics has also entailed thinking further about uncertainty in CBA, especially where uncertain outcomes might be associated with large (and adverse) impacts.
  • 14-June-2018

    English

    Rethinking Urban Sprawl - Moving Towards Sustainable Cities

    This report provides a new perspective to the nature of urban sprawl and its causes and environmental, social and economic consequences. This perspective, which is based on the multi-dimensionality of urban sprawl, sets the foundations for the construction of new indicators to measure the various facets of urban sprawl. The report uses new datasets to compute these indicators for more than 1100 urban areas in 29 OECD countries over the period 1990-2014. It then relies on cross-city, country-level and cross-country analyses of these indicators to provide insights into the current situation and evolution of urban sprawl in OECD cities. In addition, the report offers a critical assessment of the causes and consequences of urban sprawl and discusses policy options to steer urban development to more environmentally sustainable forms.
  • 4-June-2018

    English

    Inventory of Energy Subsidies in the EU's Eastern Partnership Countries

    This publication aims to provide the first comprehensive and consistent record of energy subsidies in the EaP region, with a view to improving transparency and establishing a solid analytical basis that can help build the case for further reforms in these countries (this study covers Armenia, Azerbaijan Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine). Based on OECD standard methodology, the study provides quantitative estimates of government support provided to consumers and producers of coal, oil and related petroleum products, natural gas, and electricity and heat generated on the basis of these fossil fuels. This report also briefly looks at public support allocated to energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources in the EaP countries, and discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies that underpin the analysis of energy subsidies.This publication was prepared within the framework of the 'Greening Economies in the Eastern Neighbourhood' (EaP GREEN) Project, supported by the European Union and co-ordinated with governments of the EaP countries and UN partners: UNECE, UN Environment and UNIDO.
  • 29-May-2018

    English

    Global Forum on Environment - Plastics in a Circular Economy: Design of Sustainable Plastics from a Chemicals Perspective

    29-31 May 2018 - The Global Forum aims to shed light on sustainable plastic good practices; and will provide an overview of the role of plastics, deliver examples of sustainable plastic design, define "sustainable" from the lens of chemical selection, identify key tools and approaches, and discuss current and future environmental policy instruments to incentivise sustainable plastic design.

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  • 24-May-2018

    English

    Governments need to act to encourage plastic recycling markets

    Plastic recycling is failing to reach its full potential as low recovery rates of plastic waste, poor quality of recycled plastic and a lack of price incentives are holding back secondary plastic markets, according to a new OECD report. Given rising public concern over plastic pollution, governments should act urgently to encourage more and better recycling, it says.

    Related Documents
  • 24-May-2018

    English

    Improving Markets for Recycled Plastics - Trends, Prospects and Policy Responses

    Plastics have become one of the most prolific materials on the planet: in 2015 we produced about 380 million tonnes of plastics globally, up from 2 million tonnes in the 1950s. Yet today only 15% of this plastic waste is collected and recycled into secondary plastics globally each year. This report looks at why this is the case and what we can do about it, as the pervasiveness of plastics is becoming an urgent public health and planetary problem. Not only is the diffusion of waste plastics into the wider environment creating hugely negative impacts, but plastics production emits approximately 400 million tonnes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions annually as a result of the energy used in their production, transport, and final waste treatment. Improved plastics collection and recycling represents a promising solution to these concerns.
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