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Reports


  • 15-January-2019

    English

    Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) for SME Financing

    This report analyses the emergence and potential of ICOs as a financing mechanism for start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), examines the benefits and challenges of this mechanism for small businesses and investors, and discusses policy implications of ICO activity for inclusive financing of SMEs and the real economy.

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  • 21-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume II - Self-Regulated Professions

    Portugal’s services markets are among the most heavily regulated in the OECD. As vital inputs into the business sector, services provided by professionals, such as lawyers and engineers, generate up to 1.8 times their value in outputs by firms that use them. However, structural flaws in the regulation make professional services highly expensive for firms, diminishing their ability to compete effectively. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation and efficiency within the professions. Against this backdrop, this report examines regulations for 13 self-regulated professions (lawyers, solicitors, notaries, bailiffs, architects, engineers, technical engineers, certified accountants, auditors, economists, customs brokers, nutritionists and pharmacists). From 923 pieces of legislation analysed, the report makes 348 individual recommendations for amending or removing provisions to improve competition, and makes a detailed inventory of the analysis underlying the work. Analysis of Portuguese legislation and professions was complemented by research into international experiences and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify overly restrictive provisions in order to facilitate the access or exercise of the professions, to benefit businesses and consumers alike. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and gives estimates of their impact. Provided all recommendations are fully implemented, the benefit to the economy from lifting the barriers in the 13 liberal professions is estimated at around EUR 130 million a year.
  • 21-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume I - Inland and Maritime Transports and Ports

    Portugal’s services markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD. Inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and inputs for the business sector. Regulatory restrictions limit the ability of firms to effectively compete in the markets, whether as providers or customers, while hampering innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport, and many ancillary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. The report examines 1 064 pieces of legislation and makes 417 individual recommendations for amending or removing restrictive provisions to improve competition, and makes a detailed inventory of the analysis underlying the work. Analysis of Portuguese legislation was complemented by research into international experiences and wide consultations with public and private sector stakeholders. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the provisions to benefit businesses and consumers alike. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and gives estimates of their impact. Provided all recommendations are fully implemented, the benefit to the economy from lifting the barriers in the land and maritime transport sectors is estimated to be around EUR 250 million a year.
  • 17-December-2018

    English

    The Contribution of Reinsurance Markets to Managing Catastrophe Risk

    This report makes use of a unique set of data on premiums and claims provided by global reinsurance companies to examine the contribution that reinsurance has made to enhancing the capacity of the primary insurance market to manage catastrophe risk and to reducing the economic and insurance market disruption that often follows catastrophic events.

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  • 4-December-2018

    English

    Concentration in Seed Markets - Potential Effects and Policy Responses

    Recent mergers in the seed industry have led to concerns about market concentration and its potential effects on prices, product choice, and innovation. This study provides new and detailed empirical evidence on the degree of market concentration in seed and GM technology across a broad range of crops and countries, and analyses the causes and potential effects of concentration. It also explains how competition authorities have responded to mergers, and suggests policy options to help safeguard and stimulate competition and innovation in plant breeding by avoiding unnecessary regulatory barriers, by facilitating access to genetic resources and intellectual property, as well as by stimulating public and private R&D. As this study shows, policy makers have several levers besides competition policy to ensure an innovative and competitive seed industry.
  • 3-December-2018

    English

    Financial incentives and retirement savings

    Launched in 2014, this project is reviewing the cost effectiveness of tax and other financial incentives. It is assessing more efficient ways of using public money to increase savings for retirement, retirement income and replacement rates.

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  • 3-December-2018

    English

    Launch of the OECD Pensions Outlook 2018

    3 December 2018 - Every two years, the OECD Pensions Outlook provides an analysis of the main policy issues affecting pensions in OECD countries and assesses trends in retirement income systems. It discusses policy initiatives for strengthening pension systems, funded private pension systems in particular.

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  • 3-December-2018

    English

    OECD Pensions Outlook 2018

    The 2018 edition of the OECD Pensions Outlook examines how pension systems are adapting to improve retirement outcomes. It focuses on designing funded pensions and assesses how different pension arrangements can be combined taking into account various policy objectives and risks involved in saving for retirement. It looks at how countries can improve the design of financial incentives, and presents policy guidelines on aligning charges and costs of providing funded pensions.This edition also draws lessons from nationally significant investment institutions on strengthening the governance, investment policies and investment risk management of pension funds. It provides guidelines on improving retirement incomes considering behavioural biases and limited levels of financial knowledge, and discusses the implications of mortality differences on retirement incomes across different socioeconomic groups. Lastly, it examines whether survivor pensions are still needed.
  • 3-December-2018

    English

    Financial Incentives and Retirement Savings

    Are tax incentives the best way to encourage people to save for retirement? This publication assesses whether countries can improve the design of financial incentives to promote savings for retirement. After describing how different countries design financial incentives to promote savings for retirement in funded pensions, the study calculates the overall tax advantage that individuals may benefit from as a result of those incentives when saving for retirement. It then examines the fiscal cost of those incentives and their effectiveness in increasing retirement savings, and looks into alternative approaches to designing financial incentives. The study ends with policy guidelines on how to improve the design of financial incentives to promote savings for retirement, highlighting that depending on the policy objective certain designs of tax incentives or non-tax incentives may be more appropriate.
  • 3-December-2018

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Cambodia 2018

    This first OECD Investment Policy Review of Cambodia uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to present an assessment of the investment climate in Cambodia and to discuss the challenges and opportunities faced by the Royal Government of Cambodia in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on investment trends and industrial structure, competitiveness and diversification, improving business regulation, investor protection, investment promotion, good regulatory practices, infrastructure, the investment framework for green growth, corporate governance, competition policy and how ODA is being used to improve the investment climate.
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