Editions OCDE

Better policies series


Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies Series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.

» Canada

» Chile

» China

» Colombia

» Euro Area

» European Union

» France

» Germany

» Germany and the Euro area

» Greece

» India

» Italy

» Japan

» Japan and the Euro area

» Korea

» Latin America

» Mexico

» Middle East and North Africa (MENA region)

» Poland

» Portugal

» Russian Federation

» Slovak Republic

» Slovenia

» Spain

» Sweden

» Tunisia

» United Kingdom 


Canada Canada  

Policies for stronger and more inclusive growth in Canada (June 2017)

Canada has experienced solid improvements in living standards in the last two decades and enjoys a higher quality of life than many other OECD countries. However, not all population groups enjoy equally high levels of well-being. This brochure has been prepared to help the Canadian government identify key policy reforms that would help the country achieve more inclusive growth.

» French Version: Pour une croissance plus forte et plus inclusive au Canada 


Promoting green and inclusive growth in Canada  (June 2016)

Canada’s economy weathered the turmoil of the global financial crisis better than most other OECD countries, and Canadians enjoy a high quality of life. Household disposable income is above the OECD average and continues to increase. The country also ranks among the top-performing OECD countries on many dimensions of well-being. But there are still areas in which Canada performs less well. Productivity gaps with the best-performing OECD countries are sizeable. Regional disparities are high, and the level of income inequality is close to the OECD average (which has been increasing), as is the level of poverty.

» French version: Promouvoir une croissance verte et inclusive au Canada 

Chile Chile 

Chile: Policy Priorities for Stronger and More Equitable Growth (September 2015)

Thanks to sound macroeconomic policies and a commodity price boom Chile had, until recently, enjoyed a long phase of strong economic growth and job creation. This allowed living standards to significantly catch up with those in other OECD countries. But despite this remarkable progress, gaps vis-à-vis other OECD countries continue to be large for some well-being dimensions.

» Spanish version: Chile - Prioridades de políticas para un crecimiento más fuerte y equitativo (pdf)


China China

Enabling China's Transition towards a Knowledge-based Economy (October 2016)

Since the beginning of China’s economic transformation in the early 1970s, investment has been a key driver of China’s growth and has contributed to substantial improvements in living standards. Over three decades of average annual GDP growth of 10%, disposable incomes have soared, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty. The share of the population living in extreme poverty has declined from above 90% in the early 1980s to less than 10% today. However, this growth model is no longer sustainable. Returns on investment have declined, although they are still higher than those of the Asian Tigers. Excess capacity is plaguing several sectors, and negative externalities have been onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and income inequality. A key objective of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) is therefore to move the economy towards a path of more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth.

» Chinese version: 促成中国向 知识经济的转型



Policies for Sound and Effective Investment in China (March 2016)

A key objective of the Chinese government is to move the economy towards a more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth path as envisaged by the 13th Five-Year Plan. In this adjustment process, the country is seeking new approaches for smarter, greener and more productive investment. This will require mutually reinforcing reforms to improve investment planning, rebalance the role of government and market forces, mainstream responsible business conduct and encourage greater private investment, especially in green infrastructure. China’s growing role as an outward investor may act as catalyser for the required reforms at home, as Chinese private and state-owned enterprises have to adopt internationally recognised practices and standard.

» Chinese version: 推动中国实现健全 有效的投资



All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen in China (March 2015)

Rapid growth has changed the face of China, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, facilitating unprecedented urbanisation and raising living standards. Yet a number of challenges need to be addressed to sustain strong, increasingly inclusive growth, so that benefits of rising prosperity can be shared evenly. This report provides evidence-based analysis, shares international best practices and identifies policy options.

» Chinese version: 一个都不能少:推动中国实现包容性增长 (pdf)



China in a Changing Global Environment (March 2015)

As preparation continues for the 13th five-year plan, China is at a crossroads. It is confronting the challenge of transforming what has been up to now a highly successful development model so that it can sustain stronger, fairer, greener and more balanced growth in the face of structural shifts domestically, and a rapidly changing global environment. A possible policy roadmap for sustaining China's transition towards a more inclusive, high-productivity and knowledge-based economy, that will ultimately support a transition to high-income status, would include initiatives spanning a broad range of policy domains.

» Chinese version: 新时代全球背景下的中国 (pdf)



China: Structural Reforms for Inclusive Growth (March 2014)

In spite of a slow and uneven global recovery over the past five years, China has maintained strong growth and continued to tackle income inequality, which had been rising, as well as poverty. Drawing on the  collective experience of OECD member and partner countries, this report presents recent OECD analysis and policy advice in areas that are critical to China’s long-term economic performance and social development.

» Chinese version: 中国:推进包容性增长的结构改革 (pdf)



The People's Republic of China - Avoiding the middle-income trap: Policies for sustained and inclusive growth (September 2013)

This report presents an update of OECD policy advice in areas that are critical to China’s long-term economic performance and social development. They include food security, social safety nets, health reform, green growth, climate change and urbanisation.

» Chinese version: 中华人民共和国 - 避免中等收入陷阱:实现可持续和包容性增长的政策 (pdf)


Colombia ‌Colombia

Colombia: Policy Priorities for Inclusive Development (January 2015)

Colombia’s recent economic performance has been one of the most dynamic in Latin America. The government’s major reform efforts have contributed to the improving economic and social situation. However, embarking on a path towards inclusive growth is vital in the context of successfully eradicating poverty, providing opportunities for its growing middle class and solidifying progress towards lasting peace. The road ahead to high-income status will be demanding and calls for major policy initiatives in areas such as education, innovation, infrastructure and rural development.

» Spanish version: Colombia - Políticas prioritarias para un desarrollo inclusivo


European-Union Euro area 

Euro area: Economic challenges and policy recommendations (February 2014)

The euro area is beginning to show the much-awaited signs of recovery. Area-wide efforts to strengthen the public finances and the institutional underpinnings of the monetary union are sowing the seeds of vigorous, inclusive growth. But comprehensive structural reforms are needed to enhance productivity and restore competitiveness in the years to come.

» Version française: Zone euro : Enjeux économiques et recommandations pour l'action publique (pdf)


European-Union European Union

Structural Reforms in Europe: Achievements and Homework (April 2015)

To foster a stronger recovery, while boosting long-term growth prospects, a three-pillar approach is needed: supportive monetary policy, growth-friendly fiscal consolidation, and structural reforms. This note provides a summary assessment of Europe’s structural reforms, including (i) countries’ responsiveness
to reform recommendations in recent years, (ii) a quantification of the economic impact of reforms and (iii) structural reform priorities going forward.


France France

France : Évaluation de certaines mesures de la Loi pour la croissance, l’activité et l’égalité des chances économiques et perspectives de futures réformes (septembre 2015)

La mise en œuvre de la loi pour la croissance, l’activité et l’égalité des chances économiques va dans la bonne direction pour dynamiser l’économie française. Cette note rassemble l’analyse de l’OCDE sur les principales mesures de cette loi et nos recommandations pour aller plus loin en gardant le cap des réformes.



Vers un système d'éducation plus inclusif en France ? Point d’étape sur les enjeux en matière d’égalité du système d’éducation et sur les réformes en cours (juillet 2015)

Les réformes actuelles vont dans la bonne direction et doivent être approfondies. L’objet de cette note n’est pas de faire un inventaire complet des atouts et des défis du système d’éducation français, mais, en mettant l’accent sur l’enjeu principal qui est celui de la réduction des inégalités, de proposer des mesures qui pourraient être mises en œuvre pour consolider la direction des réformes actuellement mises en œuvre.



France : Chiffres clés sur l’éducation et l’accueil des jeunes enfants en France (janvier 2015)

L’accueil et l’éducation des jeunes enfants dans des établissements de qualité peuvent avoir un impact positif à long terme sur le développement et l’apprentissage des enfants, la réussite scolaire, y compris pour les plus démunis, et, plus tard, sur l’accès au marché de l’emploi et la mobilité socio-économique.



France: Les réformes structurelles : impact sur la croissance et options pour l’avenir (octobre 2014)

La France a des atouts considérables qui peuvent étayer un redressement de sa croissance : le pays est notamment leader dans un certain nombre de secteurs à forte intensité technologique et a un système social très développé. Mais les mécanismes qui lui permettraient de croître de façon plus affirmée se sont enrayés : les gains de productivité ont été modestes depuis le milieu des années 1990 et la compétitivité s’est dégradée. Les réformes structurelles engagées sont donc indispensables.

» English version: France - Structural reforms: Impact on growth and options for the future



France: Redresser la compétitivité (juillet 2014)

Améliorer la productivité et la compétitivité de l’économie française requiert d’agir de front sur l’innovation et la recherche, sur la concurrence, sur l’éducation et la formation professionnelle, ainsi que sur le fonctionnement du marché du travail, sur l’efficacité de l’action publique et sur la politique fiscale.



Promouvoir la croissance et la cohésion sociale (juin 2012)

Ce document présente les principales recommandations de l'OCDE pour la France dans des domaines essentiels tels que la croissance et l’emploi (efficacité des services publics, système financier, innovation, fonctionnement des marchés des produits et du travail, éducation, retraites, réforme fiscale, croissance verte et agriculture) et la justice sociale (santé, logement, famille, jeunesse, intégration).


Germany Germany

Towards a Better Globalisation: How Germany can respond to the critics (April 2017)

Citizens in many countries are expressing dissatisfaction with how they believe trade, technology and immigration are affecting their daily lives. While much of this discontent can be traced back to the global economic crisis, its root causes are more complex. What can be done at the global, european and German level ?

» German version: Für eine bessere Globalisierung: Wie Deutschland der Kritik begegnen kann (pdf)



Germany - Keeping the Edge: Competitiveness for Inclusive Growth (February 2014)

Despite the harsh external economic environment, Germany has managed to reduce unemployment significantly while buttressing the long-term sustainability of its public finances. Drawing on the expertise and experience of OECD member countries, this report sets out key policy priorities for Germany to boost productivity growth and social inclusion.

» German version: Deutschland - Den Vorsprung sichern: Inklusives Wachstum durch Wettbewerbsfähigkeit (pdf)


Germany European-Union Germany and the Euro area 

Addressing the Competitiveness Challenges in Germany and the Euro Area (October 2012)

The euro area is faced with the double challenge of addressing diverging competitiveness patterns between its members while redressing it vis-à-vis the rest of world. Both developments call for strong and decisive policy actions to boost productivity in all European countries, and to create mechanisms allowing for a stronger link between productivity gains and wages. The report is designed to support European countries and institutions in their efforts to formulate and implement an agenda for inclusive growth and competitiveness in Europe. 


Greece Greece 

Greece at a Glance: Policies for a Sustainable Recovery (March 2010)

This brochure proposes a strategy to correct imbalances and modernize the Greek economy, accompanied by action plans in the following areas: public administration and budgets; pensions; the governance of state owned enterprises; tax policies; employment and social policy; education; new sources of growth, innovation and green growth;competition; the complex political economy problems associated with reforms in the public sector.

» Greek version: Η Ελλάδα Με μια Ματιά Πολιτικές για Βιώσιμη Ανάκαμψη


India India 

Promoting Strong and Inclusive Growth in India (April 2017)   

India’s economy continues to grow at an impressive rate, with projected annual GDP growth of 7.5% in 2017-18. India’s economic successes are being translated into increased well-being for its population. As GDP per capita has more than doubled in ten years, extreme poverty has declined substantially. Access to education has steadily improved, and life expectancy has risen. Looking to the future, it will be vital to fully tap into the potential offered by India's young population. This means investing in the large numbers of young people entering the labour market. Likewise, the rapid pace of development must be matched with the upgrades to infrastructure necessary to support it.


India: Sustaining High and Inclusive Growth (October 2012)

Renewed impetus for reforms is essential for India to continue to narrow its major gap in living standards with middle-income and OECD economies, to reduce widespread poverty, to reverse rising inequality and to improve the wellbeing of all Indians. Drawing on the expertise and experience of OECD and partner countries, this Report presents an update of OECD policy advice in those areas that are critical to India’s long-term economic performance and social development.


Italy Italy 

Structural Reforms in Italy: Impact on Growth and Employment (February 2015)

To improve Italy’s long-term growth prospects, comprehensive structural reforms are needed to boost competitiveness and support job creation. Drawing on the OECD Economic Survey of Italy 2015, this paper provides a snapshot of the government’s reform agenda and assesses the impact on productivity, employment and GDP of the reforms that have been introduced since 2012.

» Italian version: Riforme strutturali in Italia: Impatto su crescita e occupazione



Italy: Reviving Growth and Productivity (September 2012)

Over the past two years, Italy has made a major effort to speed up long overdue structural reforms. These reforms have been courageous, ambitious and wide-ranging and could add up to an estimated 4% to GDP over the next 10 years. Drawing on OECD member countries’ experiences, this brochure presents an update of key OECD policy advice in areas that are critical to Italy’s future.

» Italian version: Italia - Dare slancio alla crescita et alla produttività



Japan: Boosting Growth and Well-being in an Ageing Society (April 2016)

With 25 years of sluggish economic growth, Japan’s per capita income has fallen from a level matching the average of the top half of OECD countries in the early 1990s to 14% below that today. Weak growth, together with rapid population ageing, has driven public debt into uncharted territory. Revitalising growth is thus the top priority for the Japanese government. With the labour force shrinking more rapidly than the population, per capita output can only grow through improvements in labour productivity and labour force participation. Japan’s highly-skilled labour force and its technological leadership can help close the gap with leading OECD countries in per capita income. But broad-based structural reforms, as envisaged in the third arrow of Abenomics, are needed to allow these strengths to fully achieve their potential. The initial impact of Abenomics in 2013 was impressive, and the reform process needs to continue.

» Japanese version: 日本:高齢化社会 における成長促進と 幸福度の向上



 Japan: Advancing the third arrow for a resilient economy and inclusive growth (April 2014)

After two decades of low growth and persistent deflation, Japan is showing signs of renewed economic dynamism. But to regain its primacy as a leading economic powerhouse and raise the well-being of its citizens, Japan needs a structural reform package to narrow the productivity gap with leading OECD countries.

» Japanese version: 日本: レジリエントな経済と包摂的な成長に向けて第三の矢を放つ (pdf)



Policies for a revitalisation of Japan (April 2012)

Japan has several major strengths it can draw upon but major reforms are needed on several fronts. A keystone of the Revitalisation strategy is tax reform, not only to boost revenues but also to support growth and make it greener and more inclusive. 

» Japanese version: 日本再生のための政策OECDの提言


JapanEuropean-Union Japan and the Euro area 

Escaping the Stagnation Trap: Policy Option for the Euro Area and Japan (January 2015)

The global economy continues to run at low speed and many countries, particularly in Europe, seem unable to overcome the legacies of the crisis. With high unemployment, high inequality and low trust still weighing heavily, it is imperative to swiftly implement reforms that boost demand and employment and raise potential growth.


South-Korea Korea

Policy Priorities for a Dynamic, Inclusive and Creative Economy (October 2015)

In 2016, Korea celebrate its 20th anniversary of OECD membership. In this time, it has achieved impressive convergence in living standards towards the Organisation’s top performers. Fundamental to these efforts have been investment, innovation and human capital.

Of the recommendations identified in this report, and for which we have been able to quantify the likely impact, it is estimated that their implementation would increase the level of GDP by 2½% over 10 years, generating around 180,000 extra jobs.

» Korean version: 한국: 역동적이고 포용적이며 창조적인 경제를 위한 정책 우선순위



 A Framework for Growth and Social Cohesion in Korea (June 2011)

This report was prepared to help Korea identify and address main social policy challenges. It suggests specific policy options and a strategy to “go social”, based on the practices and reforms that have worked well in other countries.  

» Korean version: 한국의 성장과 사회통합을 위한 틀


Latin America 

Promoting Productivity for Inclusive Growth in Latin America (June 2016)

After a period of relatively robust growth that has allowed tens of millions of poorer households to join the global middle class, growth in Latin America has slowed recently, partly as a result of external factors. To close the still large gaps in living standards in relation to advanced economies, the region needs to significantly raise productivity growth while making sure that everybody has the opportunity to benefit from it. This will require comprehensive structural reforms, supported by a pro-productivity policy framework that incorporates social inclusion considerations from the outset.

» Portuguese version: Fomentando o crescimento inclusivo da produtividade na América Latina

» Spanish version: Fomentando un crecimiento inclusivo de la productividad en América Latina


Mexico Mexico

Mexico: Policy Priorities to Upgrade the Skills and Knowledge of Mexicans for Greater Productivity and Innovation (May 2015)

Fully unleashing the country's potential and lifting productivity also in the sectors that are lagging behind requires a comprehensive programme to improve the skills of all Mexicans, both at school and in the labour market. Such investment will also contribute to reducing inequalities of income and opportunity, which constitute one of the key obstacles for Mexico’s development.

»‌ Spanish version: México - Políticas prioritarias para fomentar las habilidades y conocimientos de los Mexicanos para la productividad y la innovación



Mexico: Better Policies for Inclusive Development  (September 2012)

This document sets out the OECD's analysis and recommendations in 21 areas that are strategic for Mexico’s present and future, in order to build a more prosperous, greener and fairer country.

»‌ Spanish version: Mejores políticas para un desarrollo incluyente


Middle East and North Africa (MENA region)

Strengthening governance and competitiveness in the MENA region for stronger and more inclusive growth (October 2016)

The MENA region registered relatively dynamic economic growth and investment rates during the first decade of the century, even during the global economic and financial crisis. This was helped by important reforms by many governments to increase economic openness, diversification, private sector development and institutional reform. The participation of Tunisia and Jordan in the Open Government Partnership, the massive investment in infrastructure by Morocco and Egypt to increase connectivity and improve participation in global trade, and the efforts of the United Arab Emirates to diversify its economy demonstrate the great potential of the region to achieve progress. However, recent political instability and security threats have considerably slowed economic prospects. Reforms have not succeeded in tackling deeper structural challenges, such as corruption, unemployment, uneven development and unequal opportunities, especially for disadvantaged regions, women and youth. Appropriate policy responses are needed to regain stability and lay the foundations for a more open economy and a more inclusive development model. While the MENA region is profoundly heterogeneous, there are significant common economic and institutional trends that support the need for more concerted action to exploit the immense potential of the region and ensure its fruitful integration into the global economy.

»‌ Also available in French and Arabic


Poland Poland

Policy Priorities for Making Poland a More Inclusive and Knowledge-Based Economy (November 2016)

Twenty years into its membership in the OECD, Poland has achieved impressive progress in terms of the living standards of its citizens. The country did not only manage to significantly reduce the GDP per capita gap with other OECD countries, but it also caught up with respect to several other dimensions of well-being. To ensure further widespread improvements in living standards, Poland needs to continue to move towards higher-technology production, boosting productivity and improving access to high-quality jobs and good pay. This report reviews recently implemented and planned reforms that aim to achieve these goals and proposes further policy measures to help Poland make the shift towards a more knowledge-based economy. To safeguard inclusiveness, it is crucial that the government also put in place appropriate policies to ensure that no one is left behind during this transformation and that all firms and all citizens can equally participate in and benefit from it.

»‌ Polish version: Priorytety polityczne dla Polski: W kierunku inkluzywnej gospodarki opartej na wiedzy

Portugal Portugal

Portugal: Deepening Structural Reform to Support Growth and Competitiveness (July 2014)

Having been hit hard by the global crisis, the Portuguese government has taken action to put its economy back on track, and to correct external and budgetary imbalances. This document highlights some key priorities to support economic growth and competitiveness through further productivity-enhancing structural reforms.

» Portuguese version: Portugal: Consolidação da reforma estrutural para o apoio ao crescimento e à competitividade



Portugal: Reforming the State to Promote Growth (May 2013)

After two decades of strong economic growth and convergence in living standards towards the levels of more prosperous OECD countries, Portugal’s performance weakened in the 2000s, productivity growth slowed and competitiveness deteriorated. Restoring Portugal’s potential for strong, inclusive growth calls for a comprehensive reform of the State.


Russia Russian Federation

Russia: Modernising the Economy (April 2013)

Russia has made fast progress in reducing poverty and catching up with the income level of advanced OECD countries over the past decade. However this progress has been largely supported by rising oil prices rather than the structural transformation of the economy. It has also been uneven. Regional and personal inequalities remain extremely large. Continuing the improvement in living standards requires simultaneously reducing dependence on natural resources, modernising the economy and fostering more inclusive and sustainable growth. 

» Russian version: Россия МОДЕРНИЗАЦИЯ ЭКОНОМИКИ (pdf)


Slovakia Slovak Republic

Slovak Republic: Fostering an inclusive job-rich recovery (April 2013)

The Slovak Republic is one of the most dynamic economies in the euro area. The country has continued to converge rapidly towards the living standards of advanced OECD economies. However, the Slovak Republic should continue on its path of reform to achieve balanced, fair and sustainable growth.


Slovenia Slovenia

Slovenia: The Growth Effects of Structural Reform (May 2015)

To improve Slovenia’s long-term growth prospects and support job creation, comprehensive structural reforms are needed to boost competitiveness, in particular by addressing the country’s productivity gap with other OECD countries. Drawing on the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of Slovenia, this paper provides a snapshot at the pension, product markets, and labour market reforms that have been implemented or approved and assesses their impact on productivity, employment and GDP.

» Slovenian version: Slovenija: Učinki strukturnih reform na gospodarsko rast (pdf)



Slovenia: Reforms for a Strong and Sustainable Recovery (May 2014)

During the last five years, Slovenia has endured a double‐dip recession that has seen unemployment 
increase to unprecedented levels, especially among the youth. The situation has improved recently, thanks to major policy initiatives to strengthen the banking system, enhance bankruptcy legislation, reform labour market policies, and support low‐income households through the tax‐and‐transfer system. 
As Slovenia reforms, it should continue to protect some of its great achievements, such as having one of the lowest levels of income inequality and relative poverty in the OECD.

» Slovenian version: Slovenija: Reforme za močno in trajnostno oživitev


Spain Spain

Spain: Policies for a Sustainable Recovery  (October 2011)

This report provides an update on policies that the OECD believes can contribute in six areas that are crucial for a lasting improvement in Spain’s future: public finances; labour market; pension system; innovation; environment, green growth and climate change; education. 

» Spanish version: España - Políticas para una recuperación sostenible


Sweden Sweden

Promoting Well-being and Inclusiveness in Sweden (August 2016)

Drawing on the expertise and experience of OECD member countries, the brochure lays out key policy priorities in the areas of education, migration, development co-operation, housing, public investment and environmental quality to support the Swedish government in addressing current challenges.



Tunisia: A Reform Agenda to Support Competitiveness and Inclusive Growth (March 2015)

Tunisia has made great strides since 2011 towards greater inclusivity and fairness in its political system, based on the rule of law, transparency and good governance. The country now needs to adopt a new growth model to achieve its full potential and cement the democratic transition. 

» French version: Tunisie : Un programme de réformes à l'appui de la compétitivité et de la croissance inclusive


United-Kingdom United Kingdom

United Kingdom: Policies for a Sustainable Recovery (July 2010)

The UK should build on its strong foundations to boost its recovery and restore confidence, according to this OECD report that Secretary-General Angel Gurria presented in London.








Documents connexes


Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)