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Publications & Documents


  • 29-November-2019

    English

    Risk Governance Scan of Kazakhstan

    This report presents the governance framework in Kazakhstan for managing disaster risks. A wide range of disaster risks are present throughout the national territory, primarily floods, landslides, avalanches, but also extreme cold and heatwaves. The report reviews how the central government sets up a national strategy to manage these disaster risks, and how a national risk governance framework is formulated and executed. It examines the role of the private sector and other non-governmental actors in contributing to resilience at a national and subnational level.
  • 18-November-2019

    English

    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
  • 13-November-2019

    English

    Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater - Hazards and Policy Responses

    Pharmaceuticals are essential for human and animal health but they are increasingly recognised as a contaminant to environmental and human health when their residues enter freshwater systems: psychiatric drugs alter fish behaviour; endocrine disrupting pharmaceuticals cause reproduction toxicity in fish and increased risk of breast or prostate cancer in humans; and the overuse of antibiotics is linked to antimicrobial resistance – a global health crisis. The situation is set to worsen with growing use of pharmaceuticals projected with economic growth, ageing populations, advances in healthcare, and increased livestock and fish production. This report helps to close the science-policy loop. It provides policy guidance to cost-effectively reduce human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in freshwater, and their associated risks to human and environmental health. Voluntary participation alone will not deliver; economic and regulatory drivers from central government are needed. Ultimately, a life-cycle approach combining a policy mix of source-directed, use-orientated and end-of-pipe measures, involving several policy sectors, is required to effectively deal with pharmaceuticals across their life cycle.
  • 4-novembre-2019

    Français

    Vers le numérique : Forger des politiques au service de vies meilleures

    Ce rapport aide les décideurs politiques à optimiser les bénéfices de la transformation numérique pour tous, à favoriser la croissance et améliorer le bien-être. Il reflète les travaux réalisés dans le cadre du projet de l’OCDE sur la transformation numérique durant la période 2017-18 et d’autres travaux de l’OCDE dans ce domaine. Le rapport identifie les vecteurs de la transformation numérique, ainsi que des questions à mieux cerner. Il offre une vision économique et sociale holistique de ses implications sur les tendances clés, leurs effets, et les questions politiques qui en découlent, lesquelles doivent être coordonnées à travers des domaines différents. En outre, le rapport établit un agenda numérique ambitieux pour l’OCDE et au-delà.
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  • 31-octobre-2019

    Français

    Perspectives de l'OCDE sur les compétences 2019 - Prospérer dans un monde numérique

    Les économies et les sociétés sont en pleine transformation numérique. Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC), l'intelligence artificielle (IA) et la robotique modifient profondément la façon dont les gens travaillent, interagissent, communiquent et vivent. Ces transformations apportent à la fois des opportunités et des défis et l’aptitude des pays à tirer parti des avantages d’un monde numérique dépend largement des compétences de leur population. L’édition 2019 des Perspectives de l’OCDE sur les compétences a pour objectif de comprendre comment les politiques, en particulier celles qui affectent le développement et l’utilisation des compétences, peuvent influencer les résultats de la transformation numérique et garantir que la nouvelle vague technologique aboutisse à de meilleurs résultats pour tous. Pour que les individus puissent tirer parti des nouvelles technologies à la maison et au travail et ne soient pas laissés-pour-compte, un effort politique global et coordonné est nécessaire. Cet ensemble de politiques doit à la fois promouvoir la numérisation lorsque cette dernière augmente la productivité et le bien-être, et atténuer ses impacts négatifs. Les politiques en matière de compétences et d'éducation sont primordiales au sein de cet ensemble de politiques.
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  • 25-October-2019

    English

    OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Colombia

    OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Colombia analyses recent developments of the digital economy in the country, reviews policies related to digitalisation and makes recommendations to increase policy coherence in this area. The report examines recent developments in infrastructures for the digital economy, telecom markets and related regulations and policies in Colombia. It reviews trends in the use of digital technologies by individuals, businesses and the government, and examines policies to foster diffusion. The report also examines opportunities and challenges raised by digitalisation for production, innovation, jobs and skills.The report reconsiders these policies in relation to their coherence among different domains and in order to foster synergies across government ministries, levels and institutions, based on the integrated policy framework of the OECD's Going Digital: Making the Transformation Work for Growth and Well-being project.
  • 25-October-2019

    English

    Shaping the Digital Transformation in Latin America - Strengthening Productivity, Improving Lives

    This report discusses policies and approaches to spur sustainable and inclusive digital transformation in the LAC region across seven action areas: enhancing access to digital technologies; strengthening their effective use; enabling digital innovation; ensuring quality jobs for all; promoting an inclusive digital society; strengthening trust; and fostering market openness. The report also aims to contribute to the preparation of an action plan that will support the region’s efforts to reap the benefits of the digital transformation.This publication was prepared to support the discussions of the OECD Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Programme’s Third Ministerial Summit on Productivity 'Harnessing the Digital Transformation to Boost Productivity in in Latin America and the Caribbean'. It draws on OECD work on carried out in the context of the Going Digital project, as well as a range of work specific to the LAC region, such as the OECD-IDB report Broadband Policies for Latin America and the Caribbean, the OECD Reviews of Telecommunication Policies in Mexico and Colombia, and the OECD Going Digital Reviews of Colombia and Brazil.
  • 17-October-2019

    English

    News on innovation, science, technology and industry

    Every month, this newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

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  • 17-October-2019

    English

    Governance of science and technology policies

    This report provides learnings from 13 case studies on governance mechanisms of national and supranational science, technology and innovation initiatives.

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  • 17-October-2019

    English

    Policy initiatives for health and the bioeconomy

    This document presents and compares 12 policy initiatives from OECD countries with a focus on policy objectives, target groups, sectoral priorities, budget, time horizon, selection criteria, international collaboration, and evaluation of the initiatives.

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